Ahfad University For Women
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The School of Rural Extension, Education and Development


The School of Rural Extension, Education and Development (REED) has been evolving since its opening in 1987. The philosophy upon which REED is built emphasizes enhancing the status of Sudanese women by enabling them to assume responsible roles in the development of the nation. The REED program aims towards graduating generalists who are committed to working to improve conditions in rural communities. Although the aims of REED have been clear from the start, the School has been able to respond to the changing educational needs of the rural sector.


Because AUW focuses on the development of rural communities, REED has a special scholarship program for 18 students from deprived rural areas of the Sudan. Of those 18 scholarship; six are set aside for students from the southern states of Sudan, Darfur and Kordofan each have four scholarships set aside for their students; students from the Northern and Eastern States each receive the realities of rural women's roles, problems and opportunities. Graduates are prepared to manage and coordinate development activities targeted towards the rural sector, especially women. REED graduates develop the skills required to engage in fieldwork, research, and training and to become involved in policy and decision-making.

The Curriculum: Rural Extension Experience

Central to the REED curriculum is student participation in fieldwork in rural areas. Each summer, when the school is not in session, all REED students participate in individual research in rural areas of Sudan. For many students from urban areas, these field assignments provide their first extensive experience in village life and the realities of rural communities. The emphases of these assignments are on identifying the problems faced by the community, researching solutions to those problems, implementing the solutions, and finally, evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation.

The Rural Extension Programme

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The Rural Extension Programme started in 1973 as an integral part of the curriculum of the School of Health Sciences. The course was initiated in response to the need to improve the quality of life for families in poor rural and urban settlements. The course proved to be a great success. The students gained valuable experience and first-hand training work on rural extension. In 1978 the course was assigned as a University requirement course for all third year students in all schools. Now it is a university requirement for the fourth year students of all schools except the School of Health Sciences, where the course s required for the first year students.

The objectives of the Rural Extension Programme are four-fold:

  • To expose and train students to deal with issues of rural life
  • To improve the quality of life in rural communities especially among rural women
  • To practice methods of social research in collecting and analyzing data related to the needs of rural women
  • To train students in the field of development and to encourage them to act as agents of change

The aim of this training is to prepare the students to be agents of social change, well equipped with the essential skills of leadership. Furthermore, the students are trained in their own disciplines, which will enable them to improve the quality of life in rural communities. Students participate in a variety of activities which all involve community work and mobilization. The spirit of teamwork is promoted among students in areas where integrated work pattern could be achieved.

Finally, students receive training in the preparation of simple educational material and their communication to rural villages. The students and their instructors make field trips to villages in different areas of Sudan for extension work. These field trips are organized in cooperation with government agencies and non-governmental organizations that are active in the areas to be visited, and topics of research to be undertaken are chosen in collaboration with these agencies.

Course Descriptions, Undergraduate

First Year

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RDPH 101: Applied Physics for Rural Development (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquaint the students with the basic principles of Physics to help them understand the technologies of food and fibber processing, renewable energy. Content: Heat transfer; Thermo dynamics; Fluid mechanics.

URTD 102: Talents Development (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

RDCS 101: Art Skills (2 credit hours)
Objective: To understand the basics of art; to apply Art in educational materials and visual aids. Content: Basics of Arts; Drawings-Colours. Use of projectors-video etc.; Home decorations; Flower shows and decorations.

URBM 101: Basic Mathematics (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

UREL 101: English Language I (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

RDAG 101: Introduction to Agriculture (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquaint the students with the:
1) The different agricultural systems in the Sudan, and the major crops/livestock associated with them.
2) Examine the role and women in the agriculture of the Sudan.
Content: Historical development of agriculture; Farming systems in Sudan; Gender-based roles in agriculture.

RDBI 101: Biology (3 credit hours)
1) To furnish the students with the basic knowledge of botany and plant species of rural communities.
2) To furnish the students with the basics of zoology and body systems
Content: Difference between living and non-living organisms; the cell; plant tissues and systems; animal’s classification; histology; body systems.

RDRE 101: Orientation to Rural Extension, Education and Development (2 credit hours)
Objective: To orient students on Ahfad University policy and to familiarize them with REED and rural challenges. To sensitize students to their future roles in rural development. Content: Briefing on Ahfad University and REED; Challenges of development in rural areas around the world and in Sudan; Meeting development challenges; Briefing on School of Rural Extension Educational & Development.

RDAC 101: Applied Chemistry (3 credit hours)
Objective: Identify the basic concepts of chemistry, recognize the behaviour of solutions, and know the pH-pK relationships; identify properties and structure of organic compounds. Content: knowledge of basic chemistry, chemical equations, reactions and general concepts of organic Chemistry.

RDSO 111: Introduction to Sociology (2 credit hours)
Objective: To enable the students to identify social values and traditions. Content: The study of society; The individual in society; The organization of society; Social institutions, cultural and society.

URES 111: Environmental Studies (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

Second Year

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RDAB 201: Applied Biochemistry (4 credit hours)
Objective: To give the students knowledge on basic biochemical molecules, and the skills of application of biochemistry in industry. Content: Carbohydrates and lipids structures and functions, amino acids and proteins, enzymes, vitamins, food preservation, and milk components.

URBS 201: Basic Statistics (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

RDPY 201: Introduction to Psychology (3 credit hours, Lecture 3 hours/week)
Objective: To familiarize the student with the relevant terminologies of psychology, so as to be able to outline and discuss conceptual framework, theories and experimental data. Content: Definition of Psychology; Neurological; Behavioural Cognitive and phenomenological; Research methods in psychology

URPE 201: Population Education (3 credit hours)
See university required courses

RDMG 201: Introduction to Management (3 credit hours, Lecture 3 hours/week)
Objective: To expose the student to the management theories and practice. Content: Historical perspective of management-theory and practice; System Management, The managerial process; Application of management theory.

RDAG 211: Household and Market vegetable Production (4 credit hours)
Objective: To enable students to identify different important vegetable crops grown in Sudan and to describe their major production patterns. To be able to assist household in planning small vegetable gardens. Content: Introduction to vegetable growing; photosynthesis and respiration; seeds transplanting and post-transplanting; land preparation and other field practices.

RDAT 211: Appropriate Technology for Rural Development (3 credit hours)
Objective: To teach the student the skills and knowledge related to making, using, maintaining, and repairing selected appropriate technologies for rural development and nursery management. Content: Introduction to appropriate technology; large scale and small scale energy production; appropriate technology for energy utilization; appropriate technology for water management.

RDAG 212: Nursery Management (3 credit hours)
Objective: To teach the students to plan, establish and manage a nursery and train others in managing one. Content: Introduction to nurseries; types of green houses; cultural practices and equipment; garden designs and types; principles of horticulture.

RDSX 212: Summer Training Exchange Experience Attachment (2 credit hours)
Objective: To show the students the contribution of non-formal education in rural development, describe the role of educators/change agents in non-formal education and identify the characteristics of adult learners involved in non-formal education. Content: Learning theory; education-definition-purpose; extension as NFE; NFand extension models; NFE in Africa and the Sudan.

RDSO 212: Rural Sociology (3 credit hours)
Objective: To be able to identify the main differences between rural and urban communities and use the sociological theories to enhance rural development. Content: Introduction to rural sociology; rural/urban differences; causes of under development Indicators of poverty, approaches of development, principles of development.

RDSS 211: Sudanese Society (3 credit hours)
Objective: To introduce the students to Sudanese communities, their development through out time and the way they are integrated within the political boundaries. Content: Ethnic composition of Sudanese communities; the process of fusion between ethnic groups beliefs and values; national integration problem.

UREL 201: English Language III (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

UREL 211: English Language IV (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

RDME 201: Micro Economics (3 credit hours)
Objective: To provide students with all necessary knowledge about micro economics theory and practices. Content: Introduction to micro-economics, demand and supply, equilibrium, elasticity of demand and supply, utility.

Third Year

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RDAC 302: Financial Accounting (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquaint the students with the basic concepts of financial accounting. Content: Introduction to accounting; elements of accounting; accounting relationships; use of primary books.

RDAT 301: Appropriate Technology for Food and Fibre Processing (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquire knowledge and skills in technologies relevant to food and fibber processing and preservation. Content: Post-harvest technologies for food processing and storage; animal products and by-products; fibre and textile technology; and small industries.

RDSC 301: Social Change (3 credit hours)
Objective: To familiarize the student with the different theories of social change and the significant roles of change agents. Content: Society and social change; theories of social change; the role of change agents in the process of social change.

RDES 301: Environmental Studies II (4 credit hours)
Objective: To understand the biophysical environment of the Sudan both natural and man-made and the basic physical laws and processes operating upon them. Content: To develop among the students the concepts of environmental ethics, ecological wisdom and inter-generational heritage of the environment and natural resources.

RDAG 301: Household and Market Fruit Production (3 credit hours)
Objective: To be able to identify important fruits produced in Sudan, understand the main principles of establishing household orchards and prepare a profit/loss analysis of household gardens. Content: Introduction; orchard establishment; orchard management; fruit crops

RDAG 302: House-hold and Market Animal Production (3 credit hours)
Objective: To enable the student to describe the major phases of production and management of at least two kinds of common domestic animals at household level and become familiar with ecologically sound animal husbandry. Content: Common domesticated animals; ruminant improved practices; poultry improved practices.

RDCD 311: Community Development (3 credit hours)
Objective: To become acquainted with contemporary thinking on community development and be aware of community development efforts present in Sudan. Contents: Definition of basic concepts; models of community change; essential elements for promoting development; power in communities; evaluation of community development programmes.

RDCH 311: Community Health (3 credit hours)
Objective: To enable the student to identify basic health needs of rural communities and mobilize and help these communities towards improving it. Content: Community health needs; mother and child health; traditional practices related to health; health problems management; health education and intervention; role of rural extension in health education.

RDPE 311: Production Economics (3 credit hours)
Objective: To expose the student to different production and cost functions. Content: Production and cost function; Input-output relations; Input-input relations; production function for two variable inputs; production of two or more products; maximum revenue combination of outputs.

RDCD 312: Child Development (3 credit hours)
Objective: To provide the student with information about physical, social and cognitive development; with the intention of familiarizing them about the needs of children at all stages of development. Content: Historical perspective; methods of studying children; heredity and environmental influence; parental development; pre-school and school education; adolescence.

RDAC 301: Introduction to Accounting (3 credit hours)
Objective: To provide the student with the principles and concepts of accounting. Content: Introduction, concepts, principles and cycle of accounting.

RDMC 314: Communication and Media-Production Skills
(3 credit hours)
Objective: To develop the global understanding of the student on communication process in mind extension and to enable them to plan communication media that suits target groups. Content: Introduction; media communication; planning methods; audio and visual communication.

RDSX 315:- Summer Training Attachment Experience Exchange (STAXX) (2 credit hours)
Objective: To expose students to rural communities and to develop students capabilities to learn and reflect on aspects of rural life. To prepare students for future employment in rural sector development. Content: Debriefing of STAXX 1, preparing them to next summer training.

RDRE 316: Rural Extension (3 credit hours)
Objective: To provide student with extension concept, approaches, and terminology. Content: Extension concepts, theories, approaches and principles of communication.

Fourth Year

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RDAG 401: Small Farming Mechanisation (3 credit hours)
Objective: To familiarize the students with the functioning and types of the different equipment's and machinery used in agricultural operations. Content: Introduction; power sources of agriculture; soil tillage; agricultural tools and machinery.

RDAG 402: Household and Market Mixed Farming (4 credit hours)
Objective: To explain to the student the concepts of mixed household farming Systems and design appropriate farming systems to be adopted by rural Sudanese household. Content: Definition of system;food/nutrition and health; household mixed farming economics and marketing; concept of agroforestry; concept of ecofarming; and concept of dry land farming.

URRM 401: Research Methodology (2 credit hours)
See University required courses

RDEM 401: Marketing (3 credit hours)
Objective: To enable the student to identify marketing problems and their solutions and to assess the causes of market failure and its impact on market policies. Content: Evaluation of exchange system; marketing channels and systems; social perspectives of marketing; marketing functions; marketing financing and risks; women and marketing in the Sudan.

RDCE 401: Child Education (3 credit hours)
Objective: To provide the student with knowledge about pre-school education to enhance the over all development process. Content: History of preschool education; behavioural science bases for early childhood education; planning and organizing the physical environment of the; kindergarten play in early childhood education; parent education

URWS401: Women's Studies (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

URGS 411: Gender Studies (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

RDAN 402: Applied Nutrition (3 credit hours)
Objective: To be familiar with major food nutrients and to observe disorders of malnutrition in communities and the steps taken of nutritional interventions. Content: Physiological functions of nutrients in the body; food groups and formulation of balanced diets; nutrition of vulnerable groups; nutritional assessment; steps of delivering nutritional services to the community; nutrition and rural development.

RDAG 403: Farm Management (3 credit hours)
Objective: To teach the student methods of farming, planning and managerial functions and enable them to train farmers on how to adjust to dynamic agriculture processes. Content: Introduction to farm planning; dynamic nature of agriculture production; stages of farm planning; farm records and accounting; and analysis of farm records.

RDRF402: Rural Finance (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquaint the student with information about concepts and theories on rural finance and acquaint them with characteristics of rural finance in Sudan. Content: Definition of rural finance; Characteristics of agriculture in Sudan and their impact on rural credit; Sources of rural finance in Sudan; Farm budgets and their analysis; Brief study of projects appraisal; The characteristics of development credit; Problems of providing financial services in rural areas; Loan targeting.

RDDS 403: Development Studies (3 credit hours)
Objective: To enable the student to identify problems and possibilities for development in different communities. Content: Definition of basic concepts; alternative theories and the meaning of development; Dualism and the concept of dual societies; Population growth development; Growth, poverty and income distribution; Food insecurity, policies and strategies of development in Sudan.

URRE 401 Rural Extension and Development (3 credit hours)
See University required courses

URRE 411: Rural Extension II: Field Trips (3 credit hours)
See University required courses.

Fifth Year

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RDAE 501: Adult Education (3 credit hours)
Objective: To be able to distinguish between the differences and similarities concerning adult education as a field of professional practice and movement. And to teach the students to analyze existing educational programs. Content: Education terminology's; Global context of adult education; sudanese concepts of adult education; critical analysis; health and nutrition education; specific programmes of adult education in the Sudan.

RDDI 501: Adoption and Diffusion of Innovation (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquaint the student with adoption processes and diffusion of innovation and factors influencing the process. Content: Definition of basic concepts; elements in the diffusion of innovation; the innovation decision period; communication channels by adoptive categories; the adoption-decision period; the change agent and adoption of innovation; consequences of innovations.

RDHM 501: Household's Resources Management (3 credit hours)
Objective: To understand the principal concepts of family resource management. Content: Introduction to family resource management; family financial management; safety in the family; Family and management patterns; rural families and management under difficult conditions.

RDAE 502: Agricultural Extension (3 credit hours)
Objective: To be able to demonstrate plans and propose extension program and give instructional components on these programs. Content: Definition of basic concepts; historical development of agricultural extension; models and organizations of agricultural extension; extension program planning; planning extension campaigns; women and extension problems with emphasis of the situation in the Sudan.

RDIE 502: Issues in Rural Extension and Education (4 credit hours)
Objective: To develop critical thinking abilities. To practice designing and presenting issue-oriented seminars and case studies. Content: Contemporary issues in rural extension education; presenting seminars in planning, techniques, and evaluations of seminar presentation; case study methodology; problem- based learning; reflect; literacy approaches.

RDPP 502: Project Identification and Planning (3 credit hours)
Objective: To familiarize the student with economic aspects of project analysis and with different methods of project work. Content: Economic aspects of project analysis; measures of project work, comparing project costs and benefits, the time value of money, interest, present worth of future income, internal cash flow, benefit cost ratio, introduction to sensitivity analysis.

RDWG 504: Women in Development/Gender and Development (3 credit hours)
Objective: To acquaint the students with theories and approaches of WID and GAD. Content: Concepts and definitions and policies and approaches of WID and GAD; gender analysis and gender research,; population issues and development; strategies for change.

URRP 501 Research Project: (5 credit hours)
See University required courses

URCD 501 Career Development (3 credit hours)
See University required courses


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Shadia A/ Raheem Mohammed Diploma, Family Sciences, Ahfad University College for Women (1982), Post Diploma in Rural social development, Reading University, UK (1986). MA, Reading University, UK (1987). Ph.D. Khartoum University (2001), Assistant Professor, Dean. Joined AUW 1982

Ali Taha Ayoub, B.Sc., Agriculture, American University of Beirut, Lebanon (1963), M.Sc., New Mexico State University, USA (1967),. D Phil, the University of Oxford, England (1980), Professor. Joined AUW in 2000.

Amna Ahmed Rahama, Higher Diploma in Nutrition and Community Development, Ahfad University College for Women (1973). M.Ed. International Development Education. Programs University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (1984). PhD, University of Reading, UK, (1997). Assistant Professor. And Coordinator of the Rural Extension Programme). Joined AUW in 1973.

Osman A. Badri, B.Sc. (Honours), Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Prague,Czech Republic (1972). M.Sc. University of Agriculture, Prague, Czech Republic (1972). M.Sc. Agriculture Planning Auburn University USA, (1979). PhD The University of Reading, UK (1996). Joined AUW 1988.

Babiker Ahmed Badri, B.Sc., Engineering, Musil - University, Iraq (1983), M.Sc., University of Reading (1992). PhD, University of Liverpool (2002), Assistant Professor. Joined AUW 1983.

Amira Yousif Badri, Diploma in Family Sciences, Ahfad University College for Women (1981), Post graduate Diploma in General Sociology, University of Reading, (1985), MA in Rural Extension, (1986), PhD, University of Reading (1996). Assistant Professor. Joined AUW 1981.

Shadia Naser Eldin El Sayed, Diploma in Family Sciences, Ahfad University College for Women (1981), M.Sc., The University of Reading UK (1989). Joined AUW 1993.

Jalaa Ismail Elazhari, B.Sc., School of Organizational Management Ahfad University for Women (1988). M.Sc., London School of Economics and Political Sciences, London University (1990), lecturer. Joined AUW in 1988.

Huwaida Elsheikh Eltayeb, B.Sc., Agriculture (Honours), Khartoum University (1990), M.Sc., Faculty of Animal Production Khartoum University, (1998), Lecturer. joined AUW 1991.

Tag Elsir Mirgani Mustafa, Diploma, Morgan School of Horticulture Sciences. Practical Supervisor for different Agricultural courses. Joined AUW in 1992.

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Ahmed Babiker, B.Sc. Arabic and Islamic Sciences University of Cairo (1988), M.Sc., UNISCO Institute International University of Africa (1996), Lecturer, Joined AUW in 1992.

Fatima Elbasheer Eltayeb, B.Sc., AUW, (1995). MA, The University of Reading, UK (1999), Lecturer. Joined AUW (1995.

Hind Bushra Ahmed, B.Sc., AUW (1994), M.Sc., Population and Development, Gezira University, (1997), Lecturer. Joined AUW in 1994.

Elsamawal Khalil Makki, B.Sc., Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt (1990). M.Sc. Agricultural Engineering University of Khartoum, Sudan (1996). Lecturer, Joined AUW in 1998.

Abubakr Abdelazim Mohammed, B.Sc., Agriculture.(HonourS), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan (1985), Post graduate diploma, African Institute for Economic Development and Planning (IDEP), DAKAR, SENEGAL, (1995), M.Sc. Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum (1998), Lecturer. Joined AUW 2001.

Nafisa Awad Salih, B.Sc., Faculty of Science, University of Poona (1992), M.Sc. Environmental Studies, University of Mysor (1994), Lecturer. Joined AUW 1995.

Muna Haddad Omer, B.Sc., Agriculture, University of Khartoum (1996), M.Sc. Agricultural Economics, University of Khartoum (2000), Lecturer. Joined AUW in 2000.

Gihan Adam Abdalla, B.Sc., (Honours) AUW (1998). MA. Local and Regional Development Institute of Social studies The Netherlands (2001). Lecturer. Joined AUW in 1998.

Niveen Salah Eldien Elmagboul, B.Sc., (Honours) AUW (1998), MA Development Studies, ISS, The Netherlands (2002), M.Sc., University of Khartoum (2004), lecturer. Joined AUW 1998

Sulima Abdel Haliem Elballa, B.Sc., AUW (1999) .Joined AUW 2000.

Tahani Mamon, B.Sc., AUW (1995). Administrative Assistant. Joined AUW 1996.

Tayseer Abdalla Abbas, B.Sc., “Honours” Gezira University, (1998). Post graduate Diploma in Business Administration, Gezira University (2000). Administrative Assistant. Joined AUW 2000.

Sarra Mahmoud, B.Sc., (Honours) AUW, (2000). Administrative Assistant. Joined AUW in 2003.



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